Interview questions for Irrigation Engineer
1. Why Are Landscapes Irrigated?
Simply stated, irrigation provides the water requirements for sustainability of plants when rainfall is not sufficient.
Ornamental: Trees and shrubs are irrigated frequently when grown in the nursery and when first planted so that their roots quickly grow out from the root ball and into the soil in the landscape. It is crucial that roots grow as quickly as possible so irrigation can cease. The best way to encourage rapid root growth is frequent light irrigation applied to the root ball after planting. Under ideal conditions (e.g., in non-compacted soils, surrounded by extensive irrigated areas), many Florida-Friendly plants do not require further irrigation except in prolonged drought.
Turf: Although Florida receives substantial rainfall, dry periods are common in the late spring and fall. The dry period in the spring coincides with peak plant water needs due to increasing temperatures, solar radiation, and day length. Due to relatively shallow roots, turfgrasses typically require irrigation at least once a week to maintain quality. On sandy soils, some grasses may need to be irrigated at least two days a week to ensure acceptable quality (Shedd et al., 2008).
2. What Are The Irrigation Requirements For Turfgrass And Landscape Plants?
The term “irrigation requirements” implies well-watered conditions, which means that this is the amount of irrigation water in addition to effective rainfall (that which is stored in the plant root zone and available for use) needed for plant growth and without any water stress.
Ornamentals: All landscape shrubs and trees grown in a nursery and planted in a landscape require water to become established. Under most circumstances, rainfall occurs irregularly, so irrigation is required, at least until plants are established. Trees require about three to four months per inch of caliper (trunk diameter measured 6″ from ground) to become established. Shrubs require about 20 to 28 weeks to become established. Irrigation events should be 2 to 3 gallons of water per inch trunk diameter. For example, a 2-inch tree should be watered 4 to 6 gallons at each irrigation event. Water every other day until plants are established.
In addition to initial watering for establishment, irrigation in the year following establishment may be needed to maintain good quality in dry weather. We have little data on irrigation requirements for plants once established, due to the many factors that influence this. These factors include slope, aspect, soil compaction, soil depth, soil volume, width of soil space, depth to water table, wind, season, size of plant at planting, nursery production method, length of time in the container, and root pruning strategies at planting. This research simply has not been done.
Turf: Under well-watered conditions, Stewart and Mills (1967) reported that annual water consumption in South Florida for St. Augustinegrass and bermudagrass averaged 43 inches/yr over five years. For North Florida, Jia et al. (2007) reported 33 inches of total water requirements for bahiagrass. Irrigation requirements for turfgrass in North Florida are on the order of 20–25 inches/yr and 30–35 inches/yr in South Florida, on average (Smajstrla, 1990). These numbers are net irrigation requirements and do not include added irrigation due to the inefficiency inherent in all irrigation systems. Question 3. Do
3. Different Varieties Of Turfgrasses Use Different Amounts Of Water?
Many studies have been conducted on water use of turfgrasses. Most of these studies are conducted under “well-watered” conditions (i.e., no stress due to lack of water) and should not be confused with drought studies where water is withheld and physiological responses of grasses are studied.
All turfgrasses need water to sustain good quality (dense, uniform, green), whether it comes from rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Drought-tolerant grasses will go into dormancy during dry periods, growing more slowly or turning brown until conditions are favorable for growth. When enough soil moisture returns, these grasses can usually recover from drought-induced dormancy rather than dying. For example, bahiagrass is drought-tolerant, but if it is not supplied with adequate water, the drought response of this grass will result in dormancy and a “dead” appearance.
Much of the literature seems to indicate that there may be differences in water use between different warm-season grasses. These disparities likely stem from natural differences in mowing heights (e.g., St. Augustinegrass lawns versus bermudagrass golf turf), fertility, leaf architecture, etc. However, these differences have not been clearly documented in Florida work.
4.Why Micro Irrigation Is Necessary?
o To improve the productivity of irrigated land from the present low levels.
o To improve use-efficiencies of Water, Energy, Nutrient and Human Effort in Agriculture.
o To conserve scarce resources such as Water and Electricity.
o To extend the benefits of irrigated agriculture to more people with the available water.
o To facilitate better crop management through Fertigation and Chemigation.
5. What have you done to improve your knowledge for a IRRIGATION TECHNICIAN POSITION IN THE LAST YEAR?
Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety of activities can be mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good ones handy to mention.
Employers look for applicants who are goal-oriented. Show a desire for continuous learning by listing hobbies non-work related. Regardless of what hobbies you choose to showcase, remember that the goal is to prove self-sufficiency, time management, and motivation.
Everyone should learn from his or her mistakes. I always try to consult my mistakes with my kith and kin especially with those senior to me.
I enrolled myself into a course useful for the next version of our current project. I attended seminars on personal development and managerial skills improvement.
6. Types Of Microirrigation System?
The basic types of microirrigation system are as follows:
Surface System: It is the system in which emitters and laterals are laid on the ground surface along the rows of crops. The emitting devices are located in the root zone area of trees.
Sub-surface System: It is a system in which water is applied slowly below the land surface through emitters. Such systems are generally preferred in semi permanent/permanent installations.
Bubbler system: In this system the water is applied to the soil surface in a small stream or fountain. Bubbler systems do not require elaborate filtration systems. These are suitable in situations where large amount of water need to be applied in a short period of time and suitable for irrigating trees with wide root zones and high water requirements.
Micro and mini Sprinklers: These are small plastic sprinklers with rotating spinners. The spinners rotate with water pressure and sprinkle the water. These are available in different discharges and diameters of coverage and can operate at low pressure in the range of 1.0 to 2kg/cm2. Water is given only to the root zone area as in the case of drip irrigation but not to the entire ground surface as done in the case of sprinkler irrigation method.
Pulse: Pulse system uses high discharge rate emitters and consequently has short water application time. The primary advantage of this system is a possible reduction in the clogging problem.
Biwall: It is extruded dual chamber micro-irrigation tubing manufactured from Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). This system is suitable for all closely spaced row crops like sugarcane, cotton, vegetables, onion, tea etc.